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35.  Palecek, A. M., A. M. Garner, M. R. Klittich, A. Y. Stark, J. D. Scherger, C. Bernard, P. H. Niewiarowski & A. Dhinojwala. 2022. Surface roughness characterization at multiple length scales reveals the complexity of gecko adhesion on wet and rough substrates. Scientific Reports. 12:11556. Link

34.  Narvaez, C. A., A. J. Moura, D. F. Scutella, J. P. Cucchiara, A. Y. Stark & M. P. Russell. 2022. Plasticity in fluctuating hydrodynamic conditions: tube feet regeneration in sea urchins. Journal of Experimental Biology. 225 (3): jeb242848. Link


33.  Singla, S., D. Jain, C. M. Zoltowski, S. Voleti, A. Y. Stark, P. H. Niewiarowski & A. Dhinojwala. 2021. Direct evidence of acid-base interactions in gecko adhesion. Science Advances. 7(21): eabd9410. Link

32.  Ringenwald, B. E., E. C. Bogacki, C. A. Narvaez & A. Y. Stark. 2021. The effect of variable temperature, humidity, and substrate wettability on Gecko (Gekko gecko) locomotor performance and behavior. Journal of Experimental Zoology Part A: Ecological and Integrative Physiology. 335: 454– 463. Link


31.  Mitchell, C. T., C. Balda Dayan, D-M. Drotlef, M. Sitti & A. Y. Stark. 2020. The effect of substrate wettability and modulus on gecko and gecko-inspired synthetic adhesion in variable temperature and humidity. Scientific Reports. 10(19748). Link

30.  Stark, A. Y., C. A. Narvaez & M. P. Russell. 2020. Adhesive plasticity among populations of purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus). Journal of Experimental Biology. 223: jeb228544. Link

29.  Stark, A. Y. & S. P. Yanoviak. 2020. Adhesion and running speed of a tropical arboreal ant (Cephalotes atratus) on rough, narrow, and inclined substrates. Integrative and Comparative Biology. 60(4): 829–839. Link

28.  Narvaez, C. A., A. Padovani, A. Y. Stark & M. P. Russell. 2020. Plasticity in the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus): tube feet regeneration and adhesive performance. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 528: 151381. Link


27.  Fernhaber, S. & A. Y. Stark. 2019. Biomimicry: new insights for entrepreneurship scholarship. Journal of Business Venturing Insights. 12:e00137. Link

26.  Russell, A., A. Y. Stark & T. Higham. 2019. The integrative biology of gecko adhesion: historical review, current understanding and grand challenges. Integrative and Comparative Biology. 59(1): 101-116. Link

25.  Stark, A. Y., H. R. Davis & W. K. Harrison. 2019. Shear adhesive performance of leaf-cutting ant workers (Atta cephalotes). Biotropica. 51(4): 572-580. Link

24.  Stark, A. Y. & C. T. Mitchell. 2019. Stick or slip: adhesive performance of geckos and gecko-inspired synthetics in wet environments. Integrative and Comparative Biology. 59(1): 214-226 Link


23.  Stark, A. Y. & S. P. Yanoviak. 2018. Adhesion and running speed of a tropical arboreal ant (Cephalotes atratus) on wet substrates. Royal Society Open Science. 5(11):181540.  Link

22.  Stark, A. Y., K. Arstingstall & S. P. Yanoviak. 2018. Adhesive performance of tropical arboreal ants varies with substrate temperature. Journal of Experimental Biology. 221(1): jeb171843. Link


21.  Stark, A. Y., B. J. Adams, J. Fredley & S. P. Yanoviak. 2017. Out on a limb: the thermal microenvironment of tropical arboreal ants. Journal of Thermal Biology. 69: 32-38. Link

20.  Garner, A. M., Stark, A. Y., Thomas, S. A. & Niewiarowski, P. H. 2017. Geckos go the distance: water’s effect on gecko locomotor performance. Journal of Herpetology. 51(2): 240-244. Link

19.  Spicer, M. E., Stark, A. Y., Adams, B. J., Kneale, R. & Yanoviak, S. P. 2017. Thermal constraints on foraging of tropical canopy ants. Oecologia. 183(4): 1007-1017. Link


18.  Stark, A. Y. 2016. Biomimicry: what’s in it for us? A biologist’s perspective on how biomimicry can inform studies of the natural world. Zygote Quarterly. 17(3): 80-93. Link

17.  Stark, A. Y., Klittich, M., Sitti, M., Niewiarowski, P. H. & Dhinojwala, A. 2016. The effect of temperature and humidity on adhesion of a gecko-inspired adhesive: implications for the natural system. Scientific Reports. 6(30936). Link

16.  Yanoviak, S. P., Silveri, C., Stark, A. Y., Van Stan II, J. T. & Levia, Jr., D. F. 2016. Surface roughness affects the running speed of tropical canopy ants. Biotropica. 49(1): 92-100.  Link

15.  Walker, C. S., Ethington, R. L. & Stark, A. Y. 2016. Who Is Your Champion? A close look at how plant and animal structures can help solve a problem. Science and Children. 53(9): 39-45. Link PDF

14.  Stark, A. Y., Subarajan, S., Jain, D., Niewiarowski, P. H. & Dhinojwala, A.  2016. Superhydrophobicity of the gecko toe pad: biological optimization verses laboratory maximization. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A. 374: 20160184. Link

13.  Niewiarowski, P. H., Stark, A. Y. & Dhinojwala, A. 2016. Sticking to the story: outstanding challenges in gecko-inspired adhesives. Journal of Experimental Biology. 219: 912-919. Link


12.  Stark, A. Y., Palecek, A. M., Argenbright, C., Bernard, C., Brennan, A., Niewiarowski, P. H. & Dhinojwala, A. 2015. Gecko adhesion on wet and dry patterned substrates. PLoS ONE. 10(12). Link

11.  Stark, A. Y., Dryden, D. M., Olderman, J., Peterson, K. A., Niewiarowski, P. H., French, R. H. & Dhinojwala, A. 2015. Adhesive interactions of geckos with wet and dry fluoropolymer substrates. Journal of the Royal Society Interface. 12:20150464. Link

10.  Stark, A. Y., Ohlemacher, J., Knight, A. & Niewiarowski, P. H. 2015.Run don’t walk: locomotor performance of geckos on wet surfaces. Journal of Experimental Biology. 218: 2435-2441. Link

9.  Jain, D., Stark, A. Y., Niewiarowski, P. H., Miyoshi, T. & Dhinojwala, A. 2015NMR Spectroscopy reveals the presence and association of lipids and keratin in adhesive gecko setae. Scientific Reports. 3(9594)Link

8.  Astrop, T. I., Sahni, V., Blackledge, T. A. & Stark, A. Y. 2015. Mechanical properties of the chitin-calcium- phosphate clam shrimp carapace (Order Spinicaudata): implications for taphonomy and fossilization. Journal of Crustacean Biology. 35(2): 123-131. Link


7.  Badge, I., Stark, A.Y., Paoloni, E.L., Niewiarowski, P.H. & Dhinojwala, A. 2014. The role of surface chemistry on adhesion and wetting of gecko toe pads. Scientific Reports. 4(6643). Link

6.  Stark, A.Y., Wucinich, N.A., Paoloni, E.L., Niewiarowski, P.H. & Dhinojwala, A. 2014. Self-drying: a gecko’s innate ability to remove water from wet toe pads. PLoS ONE. 9(7). Link

5.  Stark, A.Y., McClung, B., Niewiarowski, P.H. & Dhinojwala, A. 2014. Reduction of water surface tension significantly impacts gecko adhesion underwater. Integrative and Comparative Biology. 54(6): 1026-1033. Link


4.  Stark, A.Y., Badge, I., Wucinich, N.A., Sullivan, T.W., Niewiarowski, P.H. & Dhinojwala, A. 2013. Surface wettability plays a significant role in gecko adhesion underwater. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA. 110(16): 6340-6345. Link


3.  Stark, A.Y., Sullivan, T. & Niewiarowski, P.H. 2012. The effect of surface water and wetting on gecko adhesion. Journal of Experimental Biology. 215(17): 3080-3086. Link

2.  Niewiarowski, P.H., Stark, A., McClung, B., Chambers, B. & Sullivan, T. 2012. Faster but not stickier: invasive house geckos can out-sprint resident mournful geckos in Moorea, French Polynesia. Journal of Herpetology. 46(2): 194-197. Link


1.  Hsu, P.Y., Ge, L., Li, X., Stark, A.Y., Wesdemiotis, C., Niewiarowski, P.H. & Dhinojwala, A. 2011. Direct evidence of phospholipids in gecko footprints and spatula-substrate contact interface detected using surface-sensitive spectroscopy. Journal of the Royal Society Interface. 9(69): 657-664. Link


1.  Niewiarowski, P. H., A. Y. Stark & A. Dhinojwala. 2017. A bibliometric analysis of gecko adhesion: a view of its origins and current directions. Pages 1-19 in: L. Xue, L. Heepe, and S. Gorb (eds.). Bio-inspired Structured Adhesives (vol. 9). Springer, New York.


1.  Fernhaber, S. A. & A. Y. Stark. To survive a pandemic, entrepreneurs might try learning from nature. The Wall Street Journal. Published online and in print May 11, 2020.  Link